RICA Test Prep - Flashcards | StudyHippo.com (2023)

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RICA Test Prep - Flashcards | StudyHippo.com (1) Isabel Padilla

7 July 2022

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question

What are the 3 primary purposes of reading assessment?

answer

1. Entry Level Assessments - they are implemented prior to instruction to determine which students have already mastered the skills that are going to be taught and which posess the prerequisite skills and knowledge. 2. Monitoring of Progress Assessments - during the instructional unit, tell which students are making adequate progress toward the standard. 3. Summative Assessments - determines which students have achieved the target standard, some measure student achievement of a single standard, where as others, often given quarterly, midyear and at the end of the year, measure many standards.

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What are some alternative assessments for students with an IEP or Section 504 plan?

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1. Give Students More Time 2. Divide the Assessment into smaller units (spread over 2 days). 3. Change the mode of delivery (ask the student to tell, rather than write). 4. Provide Practice Assessments. 5. Provide A Simpler Version of the Assessment (if the student does not read at the 5th gtade level, give them something that is at a simpler level and note that the standard was not met).

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Quality Indicators That Apply to Standardized Assessments

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1. Reliability B. Validity C. How to Interpret the Results of Standardized Tests

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What Assessments Are Used to Determine Students' Reading Levels?

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1. Informal Reading Inventories (IRI) 2. Word Recognition Lists 3. Graded Reading Passages

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What is an Informal Reading Inventory?

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An IRI us a collection of assessments administered individually to students. For an IRI, one adult gives the assessments to one student. The selection of the IRI depends on the students reading level.

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What are some types of assessments that are included in an Informal Reading Inventory (IRI)?

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1. Word Recognition Lists 2. Graded Reading Passages 3. Reading Interest Survey 4. Assessments Measuring Concepts about Print 5. Phonemic Awareness Assessments 6. Phonics Assessments 7. Assessments of Reading Fluency 8. Structural Analysis Assessments 9. Vocabulary Assessments 10. Spelling Tests

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What is the purpose of a word recognition list?

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They serve 3 purposes: 1. to provide a rough guess of the child's reading level so that whoever is administering the tests knows where to start on the graded reading passages. 2. to provide information on the child's "sight" vocabulary, the words the child can correctly identify 3. provide information about the student's ability to use sound-symbol relationships (phonics) to decode words. The child's errors will provide a partial picture of what letters and letter combinations the child knows and which ones he or she needs to learn.

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Which Assessment is the most important part of the IRI?

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The graded reading passages.

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What is a miscue analysis?

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Examining a record of a student's oral reading to identify and classify errors. ( a student reads aloud a passage and the teacher keeps a detailed record of the student's performance).

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What are Graphophonemic Errors?

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These errors are related to the sound-symbol relationships for English, such as reading feather or father. The words sounds alike, but feather wouldn't make sense in a sentence where the correct word is father. A child who repeatedly makes graphophonemic errors is either a) reading word by word and depending too much on phonics to decode each word b) reading a passage that is too difficult, or they are not using the meaning of the sentences and paragraphs to decode words (contextual clues).

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What are Semantic Errors?

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Semantic Errors are meaning-related errors, such as reading dad for father. The student has relied too much on the semantic cueing system - and hasn't used graphophonemic clues. A child who repeatedly makes semantic errors understands what the are reading but needs to be taught to use phonics skills to be sure that every word read makes sense from a graphophonemic sense.

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What are common strategies for struggling readers and students with learning disabilities?

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1. re-teach what is not mastered. Use visual, kinesthetic, and tactile activities. 2. Teach things in manageable units. 3. Provide concrete examples

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What are common strategies meeting the needs for EL and Speakers of Non-standard English?

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1. Take advantage of transfer of relevant skills and knowledge from the first language a) English/Spanish cognates: active/activo, artist/artista, color/color 2. Teach vocabulary with concrete items, pictures, charts and diagrams 3. Modeling

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What are common strategies for meeting the needs of Advanced Learners?

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1. Increase the pace and complexity of instruction 2. Extend the depth (same topic) and breadth (additional topics) of instruction 3. Build on and extending current skills

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What are the English-Language Arts Content Standards for California Public Schools K-12?

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These standards state what every child should know and be able to do at each grade level. All textbooks purchased with money from the state of CA are aligned with these standards. The STAR test measures students achievement of the standards. * All of your instructional decisions, including materials you choose, how to group students, the activities you plan, and the pace of your teaching, should enable every student to achieve each of the standards for your grade level.

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What is the California Reading/Language Arts Framework for CA Public Schools, K-12?

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The framework provides guidelines on what should be taught at grade level and how to assess and teach that content.

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What is the difference between a skill and a strategy?

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A skill is something that a reader does automatically (or with automaticity) The ability to decode is a skill. For example, knowing that the c in cake is "hard" and makes the "k" sound, whereas the c in city is "soft" and makes the s sound. A strategy is something a reader consciously chooses to implement. For example, a reader may want to get an overview of a chapter, so she previews the chapter by reading the first paragraph, all the subtitles and chapter summary.

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What is systematic instruction?

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systematic instruction is when the teacher knows what skills to teach (defined by content standards) and assessment drives the instruction. Those students who are not acquiring a skill or strategy are grouped together for additional lessons.

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What is explicit instruction?

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Explicit instruction involves directing student attention toward specific learning in a highly structured environment. It is teaching that is focused on producing specific learning outcomes. These lessons are best taught to students who share a common need. Topics and contents are broken down into small parts and taught individually. It involves explanation, demonstration and practice. Children are provided with guidance and structured frameworks. Topics are taught in a logical order and directed by the teacher. Another important characteristic of explicit teaching involves modeling skills and behaviours and modeling thinking. This involves the teacher thinking out loud when working through problems and demonstrating processes for students. The attention of students is important and listening and observation are key to success.

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What is the goal of systematic and explicit instruction?

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to prevent reading difficulties in the early grades. prevention rather than remediation.

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What are reading interest inventories?

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Reading interest inventories are surveys of student reading behavior. they should be given orally to younger children; older students can write their answers on the inventory itself. These inventories include two types of questions: 1. Those that try to determine to what extent the child values reading as a recreational activity 2. Those that try to determine the child's reading preferences. questions might include: Who is your favorite author?

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What is Independent Reading Level?

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Books and stories at this level can be read and understood by the child without assistance by the teacher. The student must read aloud 95% words correctly and 90% or more comprehension questions correctly.

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What is Instructional Reading Level?

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Material at this level can be read and understood by the student with help from the teacher. Can read 90% or more of words correctly and answer 60% of the comprehension correctly.

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What is Frustration Reading Level?

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Books at this level cannot be read and understood by the child, even with help. The child can listen to the teacher or someone else read material and understand it. For a passage at this level, the child correctly read aloud less than 90% of the words or did not answer 60% of comprehension questions correctly.

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What is Phonological Awareness?

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The knowledge that oral English is composed of smaller units. A child who has phonological awareness can manipulate and identify sounds in many different "levels" of language: 1. individual sounds (phonemic awareness) 2. sounds in larger units of language, such as words and syllables

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What is Phonemic Awareness?

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It is a subcategory of Phonological Awareness. it involves the ability to distinguish the separate phonemes (sounds) in a spoken word. For example a child can identify that duck and luck are rhyming words or that duck has 3 sounds (d/u/k).

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What are phonics?

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Phonics is knowledge of letter-sound correspondences;knowing for example, that in the word phonics, the letters ph make the f sound.

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What is the alphabetic principle?

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speech sounds are represented by letters. English is an alphabetic language because symbols represents sounds. sounds are called phonemes.

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What is a phoneme?

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a speech sound in a language that signals difference in meaning. they are the smallest units of speech

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What is the phonetic alphabet and Graphemes?

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1. The phonetic alphabet was created by linguists so that each phoneme is always represented by the same symbol. For example the phonemic symbol /e/ always represents the "long a" sound. The graphemes that represent this sound are ay (in say) or ei (in neighborhood). 2. Graphemes are the English letter or letters that represent phonemes. Some Graphemes are a single letter, for example the phoneme /b/ in bat is represented by the grapheme b.

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Vowels 1. Long 2. Short 3. R-controlled

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Vowels - air flow is open when saying these 1. Long Vowels - say their own name. i.e. bake or bite 2. Short Vowels - occur in words such as cat,bit,but 3. R-controlled vowels- are in neither long or short

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Consonants

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Speech sounds that occur when the airflow is obstructed in some way by your mouth, teeth, or lips.

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Onsets & Rimes

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Think syllable! The onset is the initial consonant sound, the rime is the vowel sound and any consonants that follow. Example: Syllable: Cats. Onset: C. Rime: ats. Example: Syllable: In. Onset: - Rime: in. Syllables must have a rime, but may not always have an onset. The onset and Rime for napkin: Onset: N Rime: ap, Onset: K, Rime: in

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What is a digraph?

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A digraph is 2 letters that spell a single sound, or phoneme. The important thing to remember is that a digraph is made of two letters, and although the letters spell a sound, the digraph is the two letters, not the sound. In consonant digraphs, consonants join together to form a kind of consonant team, which makes a special sound. For instance, p and h combine to form ph, which makes the /f/ sound as in phonemic.ch, which makes the /ch/ sound as in watch, chick, chimpanzee, and champion Digraphs that spell consonant sounds include: sh, ch, th, wh, ck, ph, ng,ck,ff, gh, gn,kn. Digraphs that spell vowel sounds: ai, ay, ee, ea, ie, ei, oo, ou. ow, oe, oo, ue, ey, ay, oy, oi, au, aw.

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What is a diphthong?

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A diphthong is one vowel sound formed by the combination of two vowel sounds. example: cow, oil, boy, out. When teaching reading, the two vowel sounds most commonly identified as diphthongs are /oy/ and /ow/. The most common spellings for the vowel sound /oy/ are oy (toy) and oi (void), and the two most common spellings for /ow/ are ow (cow) and ou (cloud). The fact that these two diphthongs are usually spelled with digraphs may explain the confusion between the terms.

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What is the difference between a digraph and a diphthong?

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digraphs are letters and diphthongs are sounds.

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What is a blend?

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When two or more consonants appear together and you hear each sound that each consonant would normally make, the consonant team is called a consonant blend. For instance, the word blend has two consonant blends: bl, for which you hear the sounds for both b and l, and nd, for which you hear the sounds for both n and d.

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How to teach Phonemic Awareness: a. Phoneme isolation

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1. children are given a word and asked to tell which sound occurs at the beginning, middle or end of the word. The teacher could have a list of words that all have long vowels in the medial position: cake, day, late, leap, feel vote, bite.

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How to teach Phonemic Awareness: b. Phoneme identity

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The teacher will need sets of words that all share the same beginning, middle, or ending sound, but have no other shared sounds. For example: lake, light and low. These words share only one sound, the beginning /l/.

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How to teach Phonemic Awareness: c. Phoneme blending

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The teacher says /b/ + /i/ + /g/ = ? ***

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How to teach Phonemic Awareness: d. Phoneme segmentation

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This is the most difficult of the phonemic awareness. You need to isolate and identify the sounds in a spoken word. "How many sounds in goat"? "What are they? ***

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How to Assess Phonemic Awareness

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a. Yopp-Singer Phonemic Segmentation b. Teacher developed tests of sound isolation, identity, blending, segmentation

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What are the 4 Concepts About Print?

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1. The relationships between spoken and written english and that print carries meaning. 2. Sentence, word and letter representation 3. Directionality of Englsh and tracking print 4. Book handling skills

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How to Teach Concepts about Print

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1. The Shared Book Experience - teachers use big books. includes introduction (prereading) ask predictive questions. read story with dramatic punch and point to text (tracking of print).Have discussion, reread on subsequent days with the whole group 2. Direct explicit teaching - your objective is the concept - many resources can be used.

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How to assess concepts about print

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1. concepts about print test - clay 2. Informal test by teacher using a picture book, paper, and crayon

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What is letter recognition?

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The teacher says the letter, the child points at it

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What is letter naming?

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The teacher points, the child says the name of the letter

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What is letter formation?

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The ability to write the letters. (production) isolation - the teacher calls out the name of the letter and the child writes it. context - - teacher gathers samples of the student writing to judge the ability of each student to produce each letter.

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How to Assess Letter Recognition?

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1. Recognition - teacher names, child points 2. Naming - Teacher points, child names 3. Production: Isolation & Context ( writing sample)

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How to teach Letter Recognition?

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1. Direct instruction and practice on forming letters; often used with the names of the children and their favorite things (like toys) 2. Tactile & kinesthetic

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Phonics & Sight Words: What is Word Identification & Word Recognition?

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1. Word identification - is the ability to read aloud or decode words correctly (how to pronounce a word). It does not mean knowing the words meaning. Phonics and sight words now - structural analysis, syllabic analysis and context later. 2. Word Recognition - making a connection between the word being pronounced and its meaning.

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What are 3 types of sight words?

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1. High frequency 2. Irregular spelling 3. Content-area words (from social studies and science; larvae, pupa, 3-5th grade).

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What is automaticity?

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The goal for all students is to achieve automaticity in word identificaton and word recognition. A child achieves this when their word identification is swift and accurate.

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What is fluency?

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Fluent reading is reading at an appropriate pace with appropriate expression. Fluent reading is essential for reading comprehension. This is because slow, struggling readers often lose track of the meaning of what they are reading.

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What are the 5 stages of Spelling Development?

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1. Pre-communicative (qqmmmm, llllll) - no understanding that letters represent sounds. 2. Semi-phonetic (bana = banana) - children attempt to use lketters to represent sounds. 3. Phonetic ( i liek to fly a kiet) - know that letters represent sounds and at least 1 letter represents each sound in a word. 4. Transitional (The firefiters have to be able to climb up the sides of the bildings) - all sounds have letters. 5. Conventional - the child spells almost all words correctly. The only mistakes at this level occur when a child tries to spell new words with irregular spellings.

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what is a compound word?

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A compound word is when 2 words are joined to form a new word: inside, football, cheerleader,ballgown.

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How to teach Phonics: Direct & Explicit:

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1. Whole to Part Phonics Method - also called analytic phonics. 2. Part to Whole Method - also called synthetic phonics

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What is the Whole to Part Phonics Lesson/Method?

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Start with sentences, then look at words and "end-up" with the sound-symbol relationship that is the focus of the lesson. A lesson that teaches the sh digraph at the end of words: 1. teacher presents a set of sentences having a word with the common element. teacher underlines the target word: cash, fish,mash, dish. 2. students read the sentence aloud with the teacher, then students read aloud underlined words (cash, fish, mash, dish) 3. Teacher says "there is something about the underlined words that is the same, what is it? the sh 4. Focus on sound symbol relationship. writes the letters sh on the board and as you point to them, the children make the right sound. 5. children reread the target words one more time.

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What is the Part to Whole Phonics Lesson/Method?

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Begin with the sound and then children blend the sounds to build words. 1. write the symbols on the board (sh) and tell what sound it makes. 2. children say the target sound each time the teacher points to it. 3. Teacher shows letter combinations that can be added to the sound to make words. write ca, fi, ma, di on cards and place them in front of sh. 4. Children blend the words together

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How to Assess Phonics?

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1. Decode in isolation a. nonsense words 2. Decode in context (Running Record)

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How to teach sight words?

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Direct, explicit: Whole To Part: 1. select words to be learned (who, want, there, your). 2. Teacher writes each word in a sentence, preferablly in a story format, with the target words underlined; "who has my ball?, " i want it back", "There it is", "your coat is on top of it". 3. teacher reads sentences, pointing to each word as it is read 4. Children read story aloud with teacher 5. teacher reads each target word on the board, points to one word at a time, pronounces it, asks the children to spell it and then say it. 6. As a follow up the children can add the words to their word banks, or write on flash cards.

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How to Assess Sight Words?

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1. Isolation - flash cards (note: high frequency words must be known without hesitation) 2. Context - Running Record

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Teaching phonics are good for__________words

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single syllable words

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Syllabic and structural analysis are needed for ________words

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multi-syllabic words

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What is structural analysis?

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(also called morphemic analysis) is the process of decoding a multisyllabic word with an affix (prefix, sufiix) added to the base word.

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What is Syllabic analysis?

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the process of decoding a multisyllabic word by examining the word's syllables. Students recognize the word by putting together their knowledge of each of the word's syllables.

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What is a morpheme?

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the most elemental unti of meaning in a language. In English there are only two types of morphemes: some words and all affixes. Remember, not all syllables are morphemes, and some words have more than one morpheme. i.e, elephant has one morpheme. Walked (walk +ed) and chairs (chair + s) have two.

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What are affixes?

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Either prefixes (before the root word: non,un, pre) or suffixes (after the root word: ment, er,ly)

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How to teach Structural Analysis and Syllabic Analysis?

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A. Teach prefixes, suffixes, roots, B. Whole to part: 1. Display five sentences, each with a target prefix, suffix or root word. For example the prefx un: unafraid,undated, uncaged 2. Read the sentence, underline un words 3. Focus on the target word, arrive at meaning 4. Focus on the prefix, suffix, or root

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How to teach Spelling?

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Use Multisensory Techniques: 1. Visual - children look at the word, write 3 or 4 times 2. Visual with color - ex. children learning the oa digraph, have them write 3 times, use blue for o and read for a. 3. Auditory - say the letter aloud as he/she writes it. 4. Kinesthetic - write words in air w/ large exaggerated stroke. 5. Tactile - tactile approaches are highly motivational and work best with younger students. Involves touch. have students use finger on screen. 6. Mental Imagery - child closes eyes, pretend they see someone writing each letter on the board. Teacher says each letter slowly.

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How to Assess Structural Analysis and Syllabic Analysis?

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Structural Analysis: 1. Isolation - present list of words (prefixes,suffixes,roots), child reads aloud, teacher records errors. 2. Context - challenge a student to read aloud a selection that has many words with the target words (prefixes/suffixes or roots) Syllabic Analysis: 1.isolation - read words with target rule for dividing into syllables 2. Context - read specifically written paragraphs with targeted words.

question

A teacher selects a variety of supplementary texts that use a controlled vocabulary (i.e., nearly all the words are high-frequency sight words or easily decodable words). The teacher then has the students read these texts aloud quietly to themselves over a period of days as the teacher monitors their reading. Q: identify what aspect of fluency (i.e., accuracy, reading rate, or prosody) this instructional strategy primarily develops; and explain how this instructional strategy promotes development of the aspect you identified.

answer

1. The aspect of fluency that this instructional strategy primarily develops is the student's reading rate. 2. The selected text helps support development of reading rate because they use controlled vocabulary (i.e., primarily easily decodable words and high-frequency sight words). 3. Research shows that reading texts with a high readability is more effective in enhancing reading rate because the teacher selects "a variety" of these texts and has the students read them "over a period of days". *This provides the students with repeated practice reading the same words in a variety of contexts, which helps build their automatic recognition of the words. Automaticity in word recognition is essential for developing reading rate, which enhances fluency.

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How to Assess Spelling?

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1. Traditional Tests: Encode in isolation (teacher reads aloud, child writes). 2. Writing Samples: in Context. look for patterns, which letter-sound correspondences are routinely missed? Are there affixes and roots that are repeatedly misspelled? Tests in context are the "real thing" - they measure whether skills and knowledge are remembered and applied correctly.

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What is fluency?

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1. read at an appropriate rate 2. read accurately 3. read with expression (prosody)

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What factors Disrupt Fluency?

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1. weak word analysis skills - stopping frequently to decode 2. lack of familiarity with content vocabulary 3. lack of background knowledge

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Instructional Strategies that Improve All Components of Fluency: Accuracy, Rate and Prosody

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a. Monitored oral reading with the teacher - fluency can be improved when the teacher works one-on-one with a student or a small group. 1. Teacher Model - teacher models appropriate rate, accuracy, expression. 2. Student Practice - after listening to the teacher read the text, the student reads the same text aloud. 3. Teacher Feedback - pick a sentence the student struggled with, model right way. b. Repeated readings - repeated readings of the same text improve fluency. 1. Student alone - reads something alone read previously by teacher. 2. Tape-assisted reading - student follows along with taped reader, pointing to each word in the text as it is read. 3. Paired with partner - take turns reading, if one is more fluent that partner should go first to model.

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How to Assess Fluency?

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Through Oral reading: 1. Accuracy - Running Record 2. Rate - Words correct per minute (wcpm) there are criteria for each grade level. These are called "timed readings" 3. Prosody - (expression) appropriate pitch, response to punctuation, characterization.

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Role in Reading Development and Factors that Affect Development: What are the 5 different vocabularies a person has?

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1. Listening Vocab 2. Speaking Vocab 3. Writing Vocab 4. Sight (Reading) Vocab 5. Meaning (Reading) Vocab

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What is Listening Vocabulary?

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your listening vocabulary consists of the words you understand when listening to other people speak.

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What is Speaking Vocabulary?

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Your speaking vocab consists of the words you use when you talk. It is always smaller than your listening vocab.

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What is Writing Vocabulary?

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Writing vocab consists of the words you use when you write.

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What is Sight (Reading) Vocabulary?

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Your sight vocabulary consists of the words you can recognize and correctly pronounce.

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What is Meaning (Reading) Vocabulary?

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Your meaning vocab consists of words you understand when reading silently. The focus of this chapter and the next is on helping children expand their knowledge of word meanings

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What is Academic language?

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1. The language used in textbooks and tests 2. Technical (or specific) academic language. For example History: Popular sovereignty, monarchy, tyranny 3. Non-technical academic language - runs across all disciplines such as: theory,analysis,synthesis

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What is background knowledge?

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refers to what you know about a specific topic. students will not comprehend what they are reading if they lack essential background knowledge on the topic. background knowledge is the foundation upon which greater knowledge can be built.

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In order to comprehend a text, a reader must have adequately developed what 3 things?

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1. meaning vocabulary 2. academic language knowledge 3. background knowledge

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4 effective strategies to teach the meaning of words?

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1. Contextual Redefinition - make use of the context surrounding the target word. 2. Semantic Maps - (word maps or semantic webs) diagrams used in prereading instruction teach meaning of words & activate prior knowledge 3. Semantic Feature Analysis - good for a set of words that share atleast 1 characteristic (a chart). 4. Word Sorts - compare and contrast words

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What is Contextual Redefinition?

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It is an effective strategy to teach the meaning of words. It makes use of the context surrounding the target word. 1. Worksheet - each target word appears 4 times 2. Step 1: Write a definition on your own 3. Step 2: In groups talk and write a 2nd definition 4. Step 3: Now students see the word in context of the sentence, write a 3rd definition 5. Students share, agree on a definition.

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How to teach Meaning of words: Morphemic (structural) analysis?

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Morphemic analysis requires students to look at the parts of words to determine meaning. a. Prefixes, Suffixes, Roots b. Whole to Part 1. Display 5 sentences, each with target word 2. read the sentence 3. focus on the target word 4. focus on the prefix,suffix or root.

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What is a Homophone?

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Homophones are 2 words with the same sound. (Sunday and sundae, mail and male).

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What is a Homograph?

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Homographs are rare in English, they are two words with the same spelling but 2 different pronunciations (cool wind, wind the clock) or (bass fish, or bass voice) (bow tie or bow to the king).

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How do you assess vocabulary?

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1. Use standardized tests - look at problems. 2. Display word in sentence, 3-4 choices of definitions 3. Ask students to choose a synonym 4. Analogies (i.e. head is to body as _______ is to mountain) answer is peak.

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What is an idiom?

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Idioms are phrases with the following characteristic: it is impossible to determine the phrase's meaning even if the meaning of each individual word is known. Examples are: "Its raining cats and dogs" or " Don't look a gift horse in the mouth".

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What is a pun?

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Puns involve the humorous use of a word, by playing with a word that has more than one meaning or substituting one word that sounds like another. Example: A boiled egg in the morning is hard to beat. Sea captains don't like crew cuts. I used to work in a blanket factory, but it folded

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What is Etymology?

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Etymology is the history and development of words. Most college level dictionaries will provide etymology of words. how words became words. i.e. Limousine comes from a region in France, Limousin, where shepherds wore a hooded cape. The first limousines were built in the early 1900's and had the driver sit underneath a covering that looked like the hood word in Limousin.

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What are the 3 Comprehension Skills?

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1. Literal Comprehension 2. Inferential Comprehension 3. Evaluative Comprehension

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What is Literal Comprehension?

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1. the answer is "in the book" 2. identifying explicitly stated main ideas 3. identifying details and sequences of events 4. identifying cause-and-effect relationship

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What is Literal Comprehension?

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1. the answer is "in your head" 2. Answer must be inferred, not stated in the text 3. Making comparisons 4. make predictions

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What is Evaluative Comprehension?

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1. answer is "in your head" - the ability of the reader to make judgments about what he or she has read. 2. answers are NOT in the text. 3. answer is a judgement, not stated in the text 4. Recognizing bias 5. Judging a character's actions (Wise? Unwise?) 6. Analyzing themes - does the author's theme make sense?

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What is an independent clause?

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What is a compound sentence?

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A compound sentence has 1 independent clause and 1 or more dependent clause. A dependent clause is not a complete thought - it lacks a subject. ex: Fred kicked the football to sam, who kicked it over the fence. (who kicked it over the fence is a dependent clause).

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What is a dependent clause?

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A dependent clause is not a complete thought - it lacks a subject.

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What is the context of comprehension lessons?

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1. should be planned for a small group. for children to be engaged, you need a small group. 2.Homogeneous groups - instructional level material should be at the same reading level.

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How to activate background knowledge?

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1. KWL charts 2. PreP (Prereading Plan) structured discussion includes: Associations - "tell me anything you think of when you hear the word penguins" Reflections on Associations - "What made you think of...?" Organizing Associations - "Do you have any new of different ideas of thoughts about penguins?"

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While Children Read: Question Classification/Answer Verification Strategies?

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A. Ask children to determine what type of question is being asked. (i.e. is it in the book or is it in your head?) B. QAR (Question Answer Relationships) 1. Right There - answer is in a sentence, literal q's. 2. Think and Search - answer is in text, but not in a single sentence, it is in 2 different parts, different type of literal q's. 3. Author and you - answer is not in the text. need to think about what you already know and what the author said and put it together, inferential and evaluative questions. 4. On my own - answer is not in the story. can answer question without reading story, inferential and evaluative questions.

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While Children Read: Gradual Release of Responsibility. Strategies include:

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1.Visualizing - seeing the action of the story in your head 2. Paraphrasing - stating in your own words 3. Clarifying - stopping when you are confused and do something to bring clarity 4. Predicting - making an educated guess as to what will happen next. 5. Generating questions - stating q's that will be answered in the subsequent text. 6. Summarizing - reduce what has been read to a few sentences 7.Adjusting reading rate - change pace of reading according to difficulty of text.

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While children read: Story Structure

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a. Story Map - a diagram b. Story Grammar - an outline c. Story Frame - fill in the blanks

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Assessment of Comprehension

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A. Use the Question and Answer Relationships (QARs) B. Use of retellings for young learners C. Assessment of Strategies 1. Oral think-alouds - monitors their reading,reread what they don't understand, and if they are able to implement other strategies. 2. Written Assessment of strategies

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What are Narrative texts?

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stories - written accounts of actual or fictional events. Short stories and novels are narrative texts.

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What are Expository texts?

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those that provide information about a topic. A social studies textbook, and information book on lions, a set of instructions, reference texts, newspapers, menus.

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What are the Elements of story grammar?

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1. Character 2. Plot 3. Setting- time and place of story 4. Mood - the feeling you have when you are reading the story 5. Theme - the important message usually about the human condition 6. Style - how it is written

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What is a protagonist?

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the main character of the story, the character who "pushes towards something"

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What is an antagonist?

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"the bad guy", the character who pushes against the protagonist and tries to block him or her from achieving his/her goal.

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How does a story map help students understand the elements of a story?

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1. when students understand the elements of a story they will recall details with greater accuracy. 2.story maps provide a visual representation of the elements 3. making one helps the students think about the structure of the story and how the elements relate to each other. 4. popular is the star diagram: Who, What, When,Where, Why and How?

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how does a story grammar outline help students understand the elements of a story?

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1. challenges students to identify the specifics of each element. A common template looks like this: Setting: Characters: Problem: Event 1: Event 2: Event 3: Resolution: Theme:

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Expository text structures include the following:

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1. Cause and effect - common in science books 2. Problem and Solution 3. Comparison/Contrast - Venn diagram is used 4. Sequence - author lists items or events in order 5. Description - author describes a topic by listing characteristics or features.

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Before students Read: Previewing with a graphic organizer. Why is this useful?

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(graphic organizers are also called structured overviews) 1. provides students with an overview of what they will read. 2. presents the key points in an easy to read format 3. it is a simple outline of a chapter

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During and After Students Read: Focusing Attention with Study Guides. Why is this useful?

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(study guides are also called reading guides) 1. the purpose is to focus student attention on key information in the text. 2. Children complete the guides while working in small groups, or guides can be completed by the whole class with the teacher's assistance, or child can do individually. 3. Study guides can be constructed in a # of formats: a. based on text structures - resembles a graphic organizer, has questions or fill in the blanks. b. key questions study guide - set of questions based on the most important information in the text. c. three-level study guide - sometimes called an interlocking guide defines 3 levels of comprehension, literal,interpretative, and applied.

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How to assess comprehension of expository texts?

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1. Use text Structures - the teacher provides the "skeleton" and the students complete the missing parts. 2. Multi-level Questions - use the QAR, it is essential to see whether students can answer the think and search, author and you, and on-my-own types of questions. 3. Readability of texts

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RICA Content Area Abbreviations: 1.PA 2.CAP 3. LET 4. PHSW

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1. Phonological and phonemic awareness 2. Concepts about Print 3. Letter recognition, letter naming, letter formation. 4. Phonics and sight words

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RICA Content Area Abbreviations: 5. SYST 6. SPEL 7. VAB 8. IND

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5. Syllabic and structural analysis 6.Orthographic knowledge/Spelling 7. Vocabulary, academic language, background knowledge 8. Independent reading

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RICA Content Area Abbreviations: 9. FL 10. COA 11. CON 12. COE

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9. Fluency 10. Comprehension, generally of any text 11. Comprehension of narrative texts 12. Comprehension of expository texts

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What are some vocabulary strategies for academic and content area vocabulary?

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1. guided discussions of academic content and concepts 2. identifying synonyms and antonyms 3. discussing word origins, roots and affixes 4. creating semantic and morphological maps 5. comparing and classifying words 6. developing word banks and word logs 7. generating metaphors analogies 8. incorporating new vocabulary in discussions and writing

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How to develop word consciousness?

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1. word games 2. investigations of etymology (study of words and their origin) and morphology 3. use of figurative language in speech and print 4. listening comprehension activities

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What is a Homonym?

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two or more distinct words with the same pronunciation and spelling but different meanings: cans (n) vs. can's (n) vs. cans (v) -er/-or (comparative vs. agent) sweet-er vs. act-or vs. report-er date (fruit vs. appointment)

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What is a cloze assessment?

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a quick informal reading assessment. It assesses the students independent reading level, instructional reading level and frustration reading level.

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What is the difference between encoding and decoding?

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Remember: Decoding for Reading, Encoding for Writing. 1. Decoding means translating written words into the sounds and meanings of spoken words (often silently).Decoding is an essential skill for reading. Decoding is not enough in itself to enable comprehension, but to be a good reader it is necessary to be a good decoder. To easily read the texts in their everyday lives, adults need to be able to decode unfamiliar words without having to think about it (that is, they need to develop the ability to decode automatically). 2. Encoding, or spelling, is the reverse process. The skills used in encoding are usually developed alongside decoding skills and reflect similar learning. In order to become good decoders and spellers, learners need to first develop some basic understandings about print and how it relates to spoken English. In particular, learners must have developed phonological awareness and phonemic awareness.

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What is syntax?

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Syntax revolves around words. it focuses on how words are arranged in a sentence. Words can be arranged regularly or irregularly for a variety of reasons to fulfill a purpose. Students should learn the rule of syntax, the order of words in sentences. For example, they should know that in English a common pattern is article, adjective, noun. (The yellow house).

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Using your knowledge of reading instruction, describe how a teacher can effectively differentiate instruction to address the needs of English Learners.

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1. The teacher can use visuals (i.e. photographs, diagrams) to 1. Identify and activate the students related background knowledge and 2. Explicitly teach more basic but essential academic vocabulary they'll need to complete the activity and comprehend the text successfully.

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Expository Texts: How can you help struggling readers & students with learning disabilities?

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1. Record a chapter on tape and let them listen before they are asked to read the chapter. 2. teacher can read aloud portions of the chapter 3. focus on key content/reteach - teach additional lessons on key content - it focuses on smaller key points. 4. vocabulary instruction with real objects, illustrations and diagrams.

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Expository Texts: How can you help English Learners?

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1. Explicit Modeling - i.e. in a series of lessons on gathering information from an encyclopedia, the teacher should use think-alouds and use deliberate movements when selecting the correct volume, using guide words and subtitles. 2. Use oral language and writing activities to support content area knowledge (as follow up to reading assignment). El's work with groups, talk about concepts and facts presented in text, then EL's write about what they have learned. bThe combo or oral and written will strengthen their understanding about key concepts. 3. Build background knowledge with L1 resources. If there are resources in an English learner's first language, the EL should read that to build background knowledge.

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What is a Schwa?

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The schwa is the vowel sound in many lightly pronounced unaccented syllables in words of more than one syllable. It is sometimes signified by the pronunciation "uh" or symbolized by an upside-down rotated e (ə). A schwa sound can be represented by any vowel. In most dialects, for example, the schwa sound is found in the following words: The a is schwa in adept. The e is schwa in synthesis. The i is schwa in decimal. The o is schwa in harmony. The u is schwa in medium. The y is schwa in syringe.

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What is QAR? What are the 4 types of questions?

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Question Answer Relationships- teaches children to recognize different types of questions and it teaches them how to use details to support their inferences. The QAR system uses a classification system that children can understand. 1. Right There - answer is in a sentence, literal q's. 2. Think and Search - answer is in text, but not in a single sentence, it is in 2 different parts, different type of literal q's. 3. Author and you - answer is not in the text. need to think about what you already know and what the author said and put it together, inferential and evaluative questions. 4. On my own - answer is not in the story. can answer question without reading story, inferential and evaluative questions.

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What are sentence sorts?

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You can use sentence sorts for words with multiple meanings. Example words: rose, rock, play. 1. For each target word, prepare 6 sentences, 3 with word as a noun and 3 with word as a verb. 2. First learn the different definitions of nouns and verbs 3. Then sort the sentences under categories of "Word used as a Noun" and "Word Used as a Verb" 4. Can always challenge student to write a sentence for each word as a noun and a verb.

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